Department of Management, Strategy and Entrepreneurship

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Work by the faculty and students of the Department of Management, Strategy and Entrepreneurship


Recent Submissions

  • Publication
    A knowledge-based perspective on the professionalization of SMEs: A systematic literature review and future research directions
    (Emerald, 2023-04-11) Mariano, Stefania
    This paper provides a synthesis of theoretical and empirical work related to the professionalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from a knowledge-based perspective. A systematic literature review consisting of three major steps of planning, conducting, and reporting is conducted. Articles are identified, selected, and deductively coded. Quantitative and qualitative methods are employed to analyze the articles. The finalized list includes 78 articles and 48 journals, with the oldest article published in 1980 and the most recent articles published in 2022. The findings showed that the empirical works (n=69) outnumbered the conceptual works (n=9). Most articles focused on the organizational level of analysis and identified causal conditions, modes, intervening conditions, and consequences. A multidimensional characteristic of professionalization emerged inductively as an additional attribute. This paper provides a synthesis of the current literature and offers a research agenda to academics and practitioners interested in the professionalization of SMEs from a knowledge-based perspective.
  • Publication
    Environmental Management Systems in Public Sector
    (Edward Elgar, 2023) Waxin, Marie-France; Bartholomew, Aaron; Zhao, Fang; Knuteson, Sandra; Makda, Areej
    This chapter focuses on environmental management systems (EMS) in public sector organisations (PSOs). Our objectives are to 1) explain what is an EMS, describe the two main EMS standards (ISO 14001 and EMAS) and how to implement them in PSOs, 2) present the benefits of EMS adoption in PSOs, and 3) present the key factors of successful EMS implementation in PSOs. The major benefits of EMS implementation in PSOs are improved environmental management practices, environmental awareness and image, organizational cost-efficiency, and environmental performance. The major key success factors are management's support, employees' and managers' awareness, competence and involvement, adoption of a collaborative management approach, allocation of sufficient organizational resources, and stakeholder involvement. We conclude by identifying interesting avenues for future research. This chapter will assist EMS scholars and practitioners in better understanding the specific issues related to EMS implementation in PSOs.
  • Publication
    Drivers, Challenges and Outcomes of Environmental Management System Implementation in Public Sector Organizations: A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence
    (MDPI, 2023-04-28) Waxin, Marie-France; Bartholomew, Aaron; Zhao, Fang; Siddiqi, Ayesha
    Our research objectives were to conduct a systematic literature review of the empirical articles on the drivers, challenges and outcomes of environmental management system (EMS) implementation in public sector organizations (PSOs) in the Scopus database, published in English. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we identified, reviewed and analyzed 11 selected articles. We used content analysis to identify important themes and concepts. First, we mapped the selected literature. We then identified four main categories of drivers (environmentally strategic, social/stakeholders, regulatory and organizational efficiency), five categories of challenges (budgetary, human resource, technical, managerial and regulatory) and five categories of outcomes (improvement in environmental management practices, environmental performance, awareness of environmental issues, image and organizational efficiency). Finally, we identified important avenues for future research that should be explored further. This article synthesizes the knowledge on EMS implementation in PSOs and offers new insights. It will help EMS scholars and practitioners develop a broader and more critical understanding of the issues specific to EMS implementation in PSOs.
  • Publication
    Recruitment and Selection Practices that Facilitate Workforce Diversity in Public Sector
    (Edward Elgar, 2023) Waxin, Marie-France; Zhao, Fang; Zacharias, Angela
    The objectives of this chapter paper are to review and summarise the recruitment and selection practices that facilitate workforce diversity in the public sector, and to offer promising directions for future research. First, the main recruitment practices that facilitate workforce diversity in PS include 1) setting quotas, targets, or reserving specific positions, 2) developing and communicating an attractive employee value proposition, 3) eliminating discriminatory selection criteria, and 4) using diversified, proactive, targeted recruitment methods. Second, the main selection practices that facilitate the hiring of a diverse workforce include implementing 1) flexible selection processes, 2) non-discriminatory selection testing and interviewing processes, and 3) inclusive and trained selection committees. To conclude, we propose interesting avenues for future research. This chapter will assist scholars and practitioners to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the specific issues related to diversity management in in the public sector.
  • Publication
    An integrative study of the implications of the rise of coworking spaces in smart cities
    (Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, 2020) Zhao, Fang; Prentice, Catherine; Wallis, Joseph; Patel, Arvind; Waxin, Marie-France
    Coworking practices have proliferated around the world being embraced not only by remote workers, start-up employees and freelancers but also by larger organizations. coworking spaces in public libraries, business districts and other urban spaces, herald profound changes for the way workspaces are used in cities. The study takes an integrative approach to investigate the economic and socio-cultural implications of coworking trend for smart cities, their ecosystems and the use of urban public spaces. The study examines these issues by studying motivations and challenges of providers and users of coworking spaces. Thirty coworking spaces in urban areas across Australia were studied and thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with both providers and users of the coworking spaces. The findings suggest that coworking spaces play an important role in building communities and developing social and cultural ties. From urban space and environmental perspectives, coworking spaces are likely to contribute to urban mobility and sustainability. From an urban economic perspective, coworking spaces provide a collaborative environment and often a breeding ground for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is one of the most salient themes in the coworking spaces as found in this study. These findings will inform urban policy makers and help them better understand and tap into the source of civic entrepreneurship derived from coworking spaces.
  • Publication
    Why Immigrant Entrepreneurs are More Prone to Exit than Non-Immigrant Entrepreneurs?
    (Springer, 2021-04) Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Tenghao; Waxin, Marie-France
    Due to various cultural and social barriers, immigrant entrepreneurs are considered more vulnerable to external shocks than their non-immigrant counterparts. The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated the plight and pushed immigrant entrepreneurs into a more precarious situation. This study focuses on immigrant entrepreneurs as a unit of analysis and seeks to explain why and how immigrant entrepreneurs exit their businesses, how they perform differently from non-immigrant entrepreneurs, and what role culture might play in the entrepreneurial exit process. Drawing on a social psychology perspective, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the concepts of self-construals and extant research, the study develops a research framework to facilitate the understanding of immigrant entrepreneurial exit. The study argues that immigrant entrepreneurs’ exit intention and behaviour are primarily determined by their exit attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control, whereas independent and interdependent self-construals that reflect one’s cultural orientations play an important moderation role between the three hypothetical determinants and exit intention. Covid-19 impact also plays an important role in influencing exit intentions. The study advances research on this largely underexplored area of immigrant entrepreneurial exit through mapping a research agenda for future research. The study also holds broader implications for public policy development, as discussed in the paper.
  • Publication
    Two decades of research into SIEs and what do we know? A systematic review of the most influential literature and a proposed research agenda
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021) Brewster, Chris; Suutari, Vesa; Waxin, Marie-France
    Purpose. This paper aims: to undertake a systematic literature review on SIEs, examining twenty years of literature published between 2000 and 2020, focusing on the most-cited empirical work in the field; to analyse the topics covered by these studies; and to propose a research agenda. Methodology. We conducted a systematic literature review, identifying the 20 most-cited empirical articles through citation analysis during the period and, because citations accrue over time, the six most-cited empirical articles of the last three years. We then used content analysis to examine the main themes they address and identify the research gaps. Findings. The most common themes addressed in the SIE literature are: analysis of the types and distinctions of SIEs, motivation to undertake self-initiated expatriation, SIEs' adjustment to the new country, and SIEs' careers and outcomes. Originality. This paper provides a first opportunity to look back at 20 years of research into a relatively new topic, highlighting the main research themes and knowledge gaps, and setting directions for future research. The paper expands knowledge on SIEs, assisting SIE scholars and IHRM practitioners to develop a global, critical understanding of SIEs' issues, and hopefully energising future research in this field.
  • Publication
    The Impact of Host Country Characteristics on Self-Initiated Expatriates’ Career Success
    (Routledge, 2020) Waxin, Marie-France; Brewster, Chris
    This chapter examines the impact of host country characteristics, the particularities of a location, on self-initiated expatriate (SIE)'s career success. For the SIE, therefore, the host country's institutional characteristics, culture, language, and reputation may have considerably more salience than they would for assigned expatriates. However, little is known about the impact of the host country's characteristics on SIEs' cross-border career success. The chapter first presents a brief discussion of SIE career success/satisfaction, to examine the host country's institutional and cultural characteristics that have an impact on SIE's career success. It then proposes a research model and agenda. Since there is almost no research on the impact of host country characteristics on SIEs' career success, the chapter reviews the general literature on expatriate career success and pull out from that the specific factors that will affect SIEs' career success.
  • Publication
    I Hear You: Constructing Common Knowledge Practices in the Context of Organizational Meetings
    (Emerald, 2021) Mariano, Stefania; Awazu, Yukika
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide a granular description of how organizational members construct common knowledge practices in the context of organizational meetings. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal interpretative case study methodology was used to collect data from a US-based organization involved in an information system implementation project. Findings: Findings revealed that during meetings common knowledge was constructed through four practices of discernment, compliance, reconstruction and expedition. Findings also revealed that these four practices were influenced by intervening conditions such as calibration challenges and scenario-sharing tools. Research limitations/implications: The findings of this study have research implications related to common knowledge construction and co-participation practices in the context of organizational meetings. This study has limitations related to statistical generalizability that have been mitigated through a holistic approach to case study methodology that favors analytical generalizability of research findings. Practical implications: This study provides managers with recommendations that suggest a more strategic use of meetings as useful organizational contexts that may help construct common knowledge practices and shared understanding. Originality/value: This study contributes to current theorizations of common knowledge by providing an in-depth understanding of the construction of common knowledge practices in organizations. This study also sheds some light on the strategic role of organizational meetings to manage knowledge in project-based organizational contexts.
  • Publication
    A Review of the Impact of Artificial Intelligence on the Healthcare Industry: A United Arab Emirates Perspective
    (2021) Kais, El-Cheikh Fadi; Ghafouri, Ali; Al Shamsi, Mohamed
    The last few decades have seen an unprecedented scope and intensity of disruptors to key industries globally. Among the most impactful of these disruptors is artificial intelligence (AI), which has manifested in numerous ways across a very wide-ranging and diverse set of industries. This review article aims to provide a broad overview of global disruption and a brief history of AI as a key disruptor. The current and future impacts of AI are outlined, with a particular focus on its use in the healthcare industry, broadly defined. From this base, the article discusses specific implications of the application of AI in hospitals, using some recent examples from the United Arab Emirates. With this review article, we aim to contribute to current knowledge on the distribution of AI across the healthcare industry, and the future implications for hospitals and their immediate stakeholders.
  • Publication
    Addressing Issues and Challenges in Managing Migratory Tuna Resources in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean
    (Ubiquity Press, 2021) Zhao, Fang; Mapuru, David; Waxin, Marie-France; Prentice, Catherine; Scavarda, Annibal
    Tuna resources in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are the world’s largest and most valuable fisheries of their type and are vital to the economy and the sustainable development of the region. However, the region witnesses a rapid decline in tuna resources and the depletion of species such as bigeye and yellowfin tunas, and overharvesting of the other species. This study investigated the collaborative management model used to manage migratory tuna resources. The study followed a case study design with a focus on the Western and Central Pacific Ocean Fisheries Commission. Forty interviews were conducted with key stakeholders. The findings indicated that six factors, namely, structure and size, self-interest, self-enforcement, leadership style, equality of power, and culture, affected significantly the outcomes of a collaborative management model. The findings also provide important insights on how the factors influenced the outcomes. The study contributes to a better understanding of international governance of common-pool resources (CPRs) and its challenges, and thus helps policymakers develop strategies for managing migratory fishing resources for the sake of economic viability and sustainability in the region.
  • Publication
    Spatiotemporal Mapping and Monitoring of Mangrove Forests Changes From 1990 to 2019 in the Northern Emirates, UAE Using Random Forest, Kernel Logistic Regression and Naive Bayes Tree Models
    (Frontiers, 2020) Elmahdy, Samy; Ali, Tarig; Mohamed, Mohamed; Howari, Fares M.; Abouleish, Mohamed; Simonet, Daniel
    Mangrove forests are acting as a green lung for the coastal cities of the United Arab Emirates, providing a habitat for wildlife, storing blue carbon in sediment and protecting shoreline. Thus, the first step toward conservation and a better understanding of the ecological setting of mangroves is mapping and monitoring mangrove extent over multiple spatial scales. This study aims to develop a novel low-cost remote sensing approach for spatiotemporal mapping and monitoring mangrove forest extent in the northern part of the United Arab Emirates. The approach was developed based on random forest (RF), Kernel logistic regression (KLR), and Naive Bayes Tree machine learning algorithms which use multitemporal Landsat images. Our results of accuracy metrics include accuracy, precision, and recall, F1 score revealed that RF outperformed the KLR and NB with an F1 score of more than 0.90. Each pair of produced mangrove maps (1990–2000, 2000–2010, 2010–2019, and 1990–2019) was used to image difference algorithm to monitor mangrove extent by applying a threshold ranges from +1 to −1. Our results are of great importance to the ecological and research community. The new maps presented in this study will be a good reference and a useful source for the coastal management organization.
  • Publication
    The Recruitment, Selection and Preparation of Expatriates
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020) Waxin, Marie-France; Brewster, Chris
    For organisations and for individuals, effective recruitment, selection and preparation of new employees or employees in new circumstances are always important. This issue is exacerbated in the case of international assignments, where issues of cross-national adjustment complicate the picture. The objective of this chapter is to examine and summarise the extant research on expatriate recruitment, selection and preparation. The chapter is structured as follow. First, we discuss expatriate recruitment sources, methods, and the expatriates' motivations to work abroad. Second, we examine expatriate selection criteria, methods, and how expatriates are selected in practice. Third, we present the variety of expatriate preparation methods, discuss expatriate training effectiveness and expatriate preparation in practice. We conclude by considering future avenues of research. Overall, there is good material for researchers to build on and a growing understanding of the key issues. Nevertheless, there remains here a rich field for exciting research in the future.
  • Publication
    Workforce Localization in the Arab Gulf Countries: How Do Organizations Socialize the Members of a Powerful Minority?
    (MDPI, 2020-07) Waxin, Marie-France; Kumra, Savita; Zhao, Fang
    This paper addresses a key social–cultural aspect of sustainability in the Gulf region: Workforce localization (WL). Our research objective is to empirically explore organizational socialization (OS) practices in the context of WL in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where National Citizens (NCs) are a powerful minority in the workforce. This research adopts a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of the WL program in 14 organizations in the UAE, across different industrial sectors and ownership. We found five major OS practices: Establishing thorough orientation programs, providing formal training programs (skills, diversity/cultural awareness, supervisor, mentoring and coaching team building), redesigning NCs' jobs and work teams, engaging expatriates in NCs' OS processes, and organizing networking events. All organizations rigorously evaluated the effectiveness of their OS practices. This study contributes to the empirical literature on management OS, WL, and diversity management in a non-western, emerging Arab country. It contributes to theory development on the content of OS practices, showing how a minority can be a powerful group around whom socialization processes are tailored to integrate them fully into the organization. Practically, our findings inform managers of how to adapt their existing OS practices to the specific needs of minority members, and support Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)-based organizations and policymakers with the design, monitoring, and implementation of WL programs, and with the development of a sustainable workforce.
  • Publication
    Organizational forgetting Part I: a review of the literature and future research directions
    (Emerald Publishing, 2020) Mariano, Stefania; Casey, Andrea; Olivera, Fernando
    The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and synthesize the literature on organizational forgetting. A systematic literature review approach was used to synthesize current theoretical and empirical studies on organizational forgetting. The review and synthesis of the literature revealed that the organizational forgetting literature is fragmented, with studies conducted across disparate fields and using different methodologies; two primary modes (i.e. accidental and purposeful) and three foci (i.e. knowledge depreciation, knowledge loss and unlearning) define current organizational forgetting literature; and the factors that influence organizational forgetting can be grouped into four clusters related to individuals, processes, tools and organizational context. This literature review has limitations related to time span coverage and journal article accessibility. This paper offers an integrative view of organizational forgetting that proposes a holistic and multilevel research approach and systematic synthesis of organizational forgetting research.
  • Publication
    Outcomes and Key Factors of Success for ISO 14001 Certification: Evidence from an Emerging Arab Gulf Country
    (MDPI, 2019) Waxin, Marie-France; Knuteson, Sandra; Bartholomew, Aaron
    The objectives of this research were: (1) To examine the outcomes and key factors of success (KFS) related to ISO 14001 certification, (2) to compare and contrast these in private organizations (PRIVOs) and public organizations (PUBOs), and (3) in the under-explored context of an Arab Gulf country with an emerging economy: The United Arab Emirates. We used an exploratory, qualitative research approach, based on semi-structured interviews with the environmental managers of 14 UAE organizations from the private and public sector. The five major outcomes of ISO 14001 certification were improved: (1) Environmental performance, (2) organizational reputation and relationships with stakeholders, (3) organizational efficiency, (4) environmental management (EM) practices, and (5) environmental awareness. These outcomes were shared by PRIVOs and PUBOs, although improved resource management, improved relations with stakeholders, and improved EM practices were more common in PUBOs, and improved organizational efficiency was more common in PRIVOs. The six KFS for implementation were: (1) Senior management’s support, (2) employees’ awareness, involvement and competence, (3) government initiatives and commitment, (4) sufficient organizational resources, (5) adoption of a continuous, integrative, and collaborative approach, and (6) the use of external consultants. These KFS were shared by PRIVOs and PUBOs, although government initiatives and commitment were more common in PUBOs, and sufficient resources were more common in PRIVOs. Our study contributes to a better understanding of environmental management system implementation in emerging countries in general, and in Arab Gulf countries particularly. Our study has implications for business leaders, policy makers, EMS professionals, and educators in the UAE and other emerging countries.
  • Publication
    Expatriate time to proficiency: individual antecedents and the moderating effect of home country
    (Emerald Insight, 2019-09-09) Waxin, Marie-France; Brewster, Chris; Ashill, Nicholas
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct impact of individual variables (cultural openness, social orientation, willingness to communicate, confidence in own technical abilities, active stress resistance, prior international experience) on expatriate time to proficiency (TTP); and the moderating effects of the home country on the relationships between these individual variables and expatriate TTP.
  • Publication
    Women, work and management in the Middle East
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2019) Rodriguez, Jenny; Ridgway, Maranda; Kemp, Linzi
    The role and position of women in the Middle East continues to be the subject of much interest in discussion in the public arena and despite questions about their under-representation in work and management, their experiences remain under-researched and under-represented in the academic literature (Metcalfe et al., 2009; Kemp et al., 2013; Kemp and Madsen, 2014; Varma and Russell, 2016). In the past decade, the Middle East region has witnessed significant economic, demographic, generational, socio-cultural and political shifts that have had implications for women’s experiences of/at work and highlight the tensions in the role and agency of women as agents of transformational change. Instances such as the 2010 “Arab Spring” revolution saw significant political and economic turmoil resulting from efforts pushing for democratisation and equality (Moghadam, 2014; Bastian et al., 2018). For example, discussing the online activism of Arab feminists during the citizen revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, Newsom and Lengel (2012) outline the different uses women made of online social media to support social change, and their particular role in empowering themselves and others in order to challenge hegemonic and patriarchal norms and political oppression (p. 33). However, women’s own positions regarding existing socio-political structures have been fragmented and despite some women’s support for the revolution as a way of dissenting against the patriarchy, there is still support (from both men and women) of traditional views that result in societal segregated roles (Abdalla, 2015b). In the context of the strength of the role of religion and cultural norms in shaping the gender social order, and how their relationship governs women’s lives and work in the Middle East (Moghadam, 2003), these efforts set a different tone for the global understanding of the narratives of dissent from women in the Arab world.
  • Publication
    Towards a Performative Understanding of Deservingness: Merit, Gender and the BBC Pay Dispute
    (Wiley Online Library, 2020) Simpson, Ruth; Kumra, Savita; Lewis, Patricia; Rumens, Nick
    Drawing largely on a high-profile case of unequal pay at the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) as an illustrative example, this conceptual paper considers differences and interrelationships between merit and deservingness, where the latter captures how, through appropriate performances, merit is given recognition and value. We propose a performative understanding of deservingness that highlights its gendered and embodied dimensions. Informed by Judith Butler’s account of gender performativity, we show that, while merit is conventionally conceptualized as a relatively fixed set of attributes (qualifications, skill) ‘attached’ to the individual, deservingness captures how, in gendered terms, value and recognition are both claimed and conferred. As we argue, a gendered, deserving subject does not pre-exist but is performatively constituted through embodied practices and performances of what is seen as worthy in a particular time and place.
  • Publication
    Le développement managérial a l’international
    (Éditions de Liaisons, 2008) Morey, Susan; Waxin, Marie-France