Faculty Work (AUS Sustainability)

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Works published by the faculty of the American University of Sharjah related to Sustainability. Please note that these works may have been published before or during their employment at AUS. Also note that entries are citation-only (no full-text).


Recent Submissions

  • Publication
    Outcomes and Key Factors of Success for ISO 14001 Certification: Evidence from an Emerging Arab Gulf Country
    (MDPI, 2019) Waxin, Marie-France; Knuteson, Sandra; Bartholomew, Aaron
    The objectives of this research were: (1) To examine the outcomes and key factors of success (KFS) related to ISO 14001 certification, (2) to compare and contrast these in private organizations (PRIVOs) and public organizations (PUBOs), and (3) in the under-explored context of an Arab Gulf country with an emerging economy: The United Arab Emirates. We used an exploratory, qualitative research approach, based on semi-structured interviews with the environmental managers of 14 UAE organizations from the private and public sector. The five major outcomes of ISO 14001 certification were improved: (1) Environmental performance, (2) organizational reputation and relationships with stakeholders, (3) organizational efficiency, (4) environmental management (EM) practices, and (5) environmental awareness. These outcomes were shared by PRIVOs and PUBOs, although improved resource management, improved relations with stakeholders, and improved EM practices were more common in PUBOs, and improved organizational efficiency was more common in PRIVOs. The six KFS for implementation were: (1) Senior management’s support, (2) employees’ awareness, involvement and competence, (3) government initiatives and commitment, (4) sufficient organizational resources, (5) adoption of a continuous, integrative, and collaborative approach, and (6) the use of external consultants. These KFS were shared by PRIVOs and PUBOs, although government initiatives and commitment were more common in PUBOs, and sufficient resources were more common in PRIVOs. Our study contributes to a better understanding of environmental management system implementation in emerging countries in general, and in Arab Gulf countries particularly. Our study has implications for business leaders, policy makers, EMS professionals, and educators in the UAE and other emerging countries.
  • Publication
    Expatriate time to proficiency: individual antecedents and the moderating effect of home country
    (Emerald Insight, 2019-09-09) Waxin, Marie-France; Brewster, Chris; Ashill, Nicholas
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct impact of individual variables (cultural openness, social orientation, willingness to communicate, confidence in own technical abilities, active stress resistance, prior international experience) on expatriate time to proficiency (TTP); and the moderating effects of the home country on the relationships between these individual variables and expatriate TTP.
  • Publication
    Mechanical and phytochemical protection mechanisms of Calligonum comosum in arid deserts
    (Public Library of Science, 2018) Soliman, Sameh S.M.; Mohammad, Mohammad G.; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Omar, Hany; Abouleish, Mohamed; Madkour, Mohamed; Elnaggar, Attiat; Hosni, Racha M.
    Unlike animals, plants are sessile organisms, lacking circulating antibodies and specialized immune cells and are exposed to various harsh environmental conditions that make them at risk of being attacked by different pathogens and herbivores. Plants produce chemo-signals to respond to the surroundings and be able to distinguish between harmless and harmful signals. In this study, the production of phytochemicals as plant signaling mechanisms and their defensive roles in disease resistance and repelling herbivores are examined in Calligonum comosum. C. comosum is a leafless standalone perennial shrub widespread in sand dunes. The plant has the ability to survive the drastic environmental conditions of the arid/ hyperarid deserts of the Arabia. Structural anatomy and phytochemicals analyses were used to identify both mechanical and chemical defensive mechanisms in C. comosum. Microscopy-based investigations indicated that stems of this species developed hard structures in its outer layers including sclerenchyma and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Sclerenchyma and CaOx are difficult to be eaten by herbivores and insects and can harm their mouthparts. On the other hand, the plant developed both short-distance (local) and long-distance (systematic over limited sphere) phytochemicals-producing cells located at its outer regions that is surrounding the inner nutrient-rich vascular system (VS). Local chemical was represented by phenolic idioblasts that were released in response to plant cutting. Systematic chemical was represented by toxic volatile oil containing ~50% benzaldehyde derivative (cuminaldehyde). The oil caused strong killing effect on both mammalian cells and microbial pathogens via either direct addition or indirect exposure to its vapor. The plants lost the oil content and allowed fungal growth once cut and dried. The localization of both defensive mechanisms to the outer region of the plant seemed to protect the inner nutrient-rich VS and hence maintained the plant survival. Surprisingly, in relation to traditional folklore use as medicine, local people use only green parts of the plant and only during the winter, where the plant found devoid of volatile oil and phenolic idioblasts. Moreover, it turns into recommendations for local people to avoid any health problems caused by the plant supply.
  • Publication
    Women, work and management in the Middle East
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2019) Rodriguez, Jenny; Ridgway, Maranda; Kemp, Linzi
    The role and position of women in the Middle East continues to be the subject of much interest in discussion in the public arena and despite questions about their under-representation in work and management, their experiences remain under-researched and under-represented in the academic literature (Metcalfe et al., 2009; Kemp et al., 2013; Kemp and Madsen, 2014; Varma and Russell, 2016). In the past decade, the Middle East region has witnessed significant economic, demographic, generational, socio-cultural and political shifts that have had implications for women’s experiences of/at work and highlight the tensions in the role and agency of women as agents of transformational change. Instances such as the 2010 “Arab Spring” revolution saw significant political and economic turmoil resulting from efforts pushing for democratisation and equality (Moghadam, 2014; Bastian et al., 2018). For example, discussing the online activism of Arab feminists during the citizen revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, Newsom and Lengel (2012) outline the different uses women made of online social media to support social change, and their particular role in empowering themselves and others in order to challenge hegemonic and patriarchal norms and political oppression (p. 33). However, women’s own positions regarding existing socio-political structures have been fragmented and despite some women’s support for the revolution as a way of dissenting against the patriarchy, there is still support (from both men and women) of traditional views that result in societal segregated roles (Abdalla, 2015b). In the context of the strength of the role of religion and cultural norms in shaping the gender social order, and how their relationship governs women’s lives and work in the Middle East (Moghadam, 2003), these efforts set a different tone for the global understanding of the narratives of dissent from women in the Arab world.
  • Publication
    Gut bacteria of Cuora amboinensis (turtle) produce broad-spectrum antibacterial molecules
    (Nature Research, 2019) Akbar, Noor; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Sagathevan, K; Iqbal, Mazhar; Tawab, Abdul; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah
    Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human health, hence there is an urgent need to discover antibacterial molecule(s). Previously, we hypothesized that microbial gut flora of animals are a potential source of antibacterial molecules. Among various animals, Cuora amboinensis (turtle) represents an important reptile species living in diverse ecological environments and feed on organic waste and terrestrial organisms and have been used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to mine turtle’s gut bacteria for potential antibacterial molecule(s). Several bacteria were isolated from the turtle gut and their conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media showed potent antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) pathogenic bacteria. Conditioned media-mediated bactericidal activity was heat-resistant when treated at 95°C for 10 min. By measuring Lactate dehydrogenase release, the results showed that conditioned media had no effect on human cell viability. Tandem Mass Spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites, i.e., a series of known as well as novel N-acyl-homoserine lactones, several homologues of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, and rhamnolipids, which are the signature metabolites of Pseudomonas species. These findings are significant and provide the basis for rational development of therapeutic interventions against bacterial infections.
  • Publication
    Sustainable Cooling and Lubrication Strategies in Machining Processes: A Comparative Study
    (Elsevier, 2019) Hegab, Hussien; Kishawy, Hossam A.; Darras, Basil
    Applying an adequate cooling and lubrication technique during machining processes is an important issue which affects the machining system efficiency. Flood cooling offers an effective solution to reduce the effect of the high heat generated during cutting processes; however, it is not a sustainable strategy because of the health and environmental concerns associated with its utilization. Therefore, several cooling and lubrication strategies have been suggested and used as alternatives to the flood cooling. These strategies include; dry cutting, cryogenic approach, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nano-cutting fluids, and MQL-nano-fluids. In this work, a comparative study is presented to evaluate the sustainability effectiveness of these strategies. In order to evaluate the strategies effectiveness, five sustainability indicators are used; namely, energy consumption, personal safety and health, waste management, machining costs, and environmental impact. A weighted decision matrix is developed to assess the studied strategies in terms of the employed sustainable indicators.
  • Publication
    Using Linear Regression and Back Propagation Neural Networks to Predict Performance of Soiled PV Modules
    (Elsevier, 2019) Shapsough, Salsabeel Yousef; Dhaouadi, Rached; Zualkernan, Imran
    This paper presents a study on neural network-based modeling techniques and sensor data to estimate the power output of photovoltaic systems under soiling conditions. Predicting maximum power output under soiling conditions is considered an important and difficult problem and a variety of models using a host of factors including temperature and weather profiles have been proposed. This study used linear regression models and artificial neural networks and used only solar irradiation and ambient temperature, as well and the maximum power point (MPP) characteristic variables of photovoltaic (PV) modules obtained from online current-voltage (IV) tracers in the site of a PV installation. The two models were trained and validated using actual monitoring data of two 100-Watt PV modules installed in the UAE. One reference panel was cleaned on a weekly basis and the second panel was left to accumulate dust over the entire period between July 1, 2018 and 17 September, 2018. The results show that it is possible to predict maximum power output of soiled PV modules at about 97% accuracy. The proposed models perform at an accuracy comparable to more complex models in literature.
  • Publication
    Lipophilic Metabolites and Anatomical Acclimatization of Cleome amblyocarpa in the Drought and Extra-Water Areas of the Arid Desert of UAE
    (MDPI, 2019) Soliman, Sameh S.M.; Abouleish, Mohamed; Abou-Hashem, Maged M.M.; Hamoda, Alshaimaa M.; El-Keblawy, Ali A.
    Plants adapt to different environmental conditions by developing structural and metabolic mechanisms. In this study, anatomical features and lipophilic metabolites were investigated in Cleome amblyocarpa Barr. & Murb., Cleomaceae plants growing in the arid desert of United Arab Emirates (UAE) in either low-water or extra-water areas, which were caused by the surrounding road run-o . The plant showed the presence of shaggy-like trichomes. The plant also developed special mechanisms to ensure its survival via release of lipophilic metabolites. The lipophilic metabolites, stained red with Sudan III, were apparently released by glandular trichomes and idioblasts of the shoot and roots, respectively. The identified lipophilic metabolites included those required for drought tolerance, protection against pathogens invasion, and detoxification. Plants growing in the low-water area caused an increase in the production of lipophilic metabolites—in particular, hydrocarbons and terpenoids. The lipophilic metabolites are known to provide the plant with unique waxy surfaces that reduce water loss and avoid penetration by pathogens. The release of lipid metabolites and the presence of shaggy-like trichomes represented unique features of the species that have never been reported. The provided chemical ecology information can be extended for several plant-related applications, particularly including drought tolerance.
  • Publication
    TCAD Simulation and Analysis of Selective Buried Oxide MOSFET Dynamic Power
    (MDPI, 2019) Mahmoud, Rana; Narayanan, Madathumpadical; Al-Nashash, Hasan
    Low power consumption has become one of the major requirements for most microelectronic devices and systems. Increasing power dissipation may lead to decreasing system effciency and lifetime. The BULK metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has relatively high power dissipation and low frequency response due to its internal capacitances. Although the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET was introduced to resolve these limitations, other challenges were introduced including the kink effect in the current-voltage characteristics. The selective buried oxide (SELBOX) MOSFET was then suggested to resolve the problem of the kink effect. The authors have previously investigated and reported the characteristics of the SELBOX structure in terms of kink effect, frequency, thermal and static power characteristics. In this paper, we continue our investigation by presenting the dynamic power characteristics of the SELBOX structure and compare that with the BULK and SOI structures. The simulated fabrication of the three devices was conducted using Silvaco TCAD tools in 90 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Simulation results show that the average dynamic power dissipation of the CMOS BULK, SOI and SELBOX are compatible at high frequencies with approximately 54.5 μW. At low frequencies, the SOI and SELBOX showed comparable dynamic power dissipation but with lower values than the BULK structure. The difference in power dissipation between the SELBOX and BULK is in the order of nano watts. This power difference becomes significant at the chip level. For instance, at 1 MHz, SOI and SELBOX exhibit an average dynamic power consumption of 0.0026 μWless than that of the BULK structure. This value cannot be ignored when a chip operates using thousands or millions of SOI or SELBOX MOSFETs.
  • Publication
    PIRATA: A Sustained Observing System for Tropical Atlantic Climate Research and Forecasting
    (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019) Bourlès, Bernard; Araujo, Moacyr; McPhaden, Michael J.; Brandt, Peter; Foltz, Gregory R.; Lumpkin, Rick; Giordani, Hervé; Hernandez, Fabrice; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Nobre, Paulo; Campos, Edmo; Saravanan, Ramalingam; Trotte‐Duhà, Janice; Dengler, Marcus; Hahn, Johannes; Hummels, Rebecca; Lübbecke, Joke F.; Rouault, Mathieu; Cotrim, Leticia; Sutton, Adrienne; Jochum, Markus; Perez, Renellys C.
    Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) is a multinational program initiated in 1997 in the tropical Atlantic to improve our understanding and ability to predict ocean‐atmosphere variability. PIRATA consists of a network of moored buoys providing meteorological and oceanographic data transmitted in real time to address fundamental scientific questions as well as societal needs. The network is maintained through dedicated yearly cruises, which allow for extensive complementary shipboard measurements and provide platforms for deployment of other components of the Tropical Atlantic Observing System. This paper describes network enhancements, scientific accomplishments and successes obtained from the last 10 years of observations, and additional results enabled by cooperation with other national and international programs. Capacity building activities and the role of PIRATA in a future Tropical Atlantic Observing System that is presently being optimized are also described. Plain Language Summary Long data records are essential for improving our understanding of the weather and climate, their variability and predictability, and how the climate may change in the future in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Climate variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean has strong impacts on the coastal climate in particular and, consequently, the economies of the surrounding regions. Since 1997, the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) program has maintained a network of moored buoys in the tropical Atlantic in order to provide instantaneous high‐quality data to research scientists and weather forecasters around the world. This paper describes PIRATA successes in terms of scientific discoveries and observing technology enhancements. Perspectives are also provided on PIRATA's role in the future Tropical Atlantic Observing System, currently under design, that will consist of a variety of coordinated measurements from satellites, ships, buoys, and other ocean technologies.
  • Publication
    Challenges of retrofitting affordable housing to net-zero carbon in the United Arab Emirates
    (IOP Science, 2019) Mokhtar, Ahmed
    Following the Paris Agreement, several governmental bodies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) started working on further initiatives to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Some of these hope to target net-zero carbon for new and existing buildings. As in most countries, the stock of existing buildings represents the bigger challenge for this target. In particular, existing affordable housing is the most challenging segment of the building stock. The limited access to expertise and financial resources makes it more difficult for owners of these buildings to retrofit them. Therefore, there need to be appropriate guidelines on how to achieve net-zero carbon in such building typology. This paper identifies both the technical and the financial challenges when trying to develop such guidelines within the context of the UAE. It also discusses the possible solutions that can be used to overcome some of these challenges. The technical challenges include the variation in construction systems, and the quality of construction for these buildings. It also includes energy modelling challenges such as selecting relevant weather data, and defining the patterns of using electricity for the different functions. The financial challenges include the subsidized price for electricity, the cost estimation for various energy conservation methods, and the payback for installing local renewable energy sources. Finally, the paper suggests a path for research activities to address these challenges and to develop the guidelines.
  • Publication
    Investigation of Energy Storage Batteries in Stability Enforcement of Low Inertia Active Distribution Network
    (Springer Link, 2019) Bangash, Kashif; Farrag, Mohamed; Osman, Ahmed
    The inherent intermittency of renewable power generation poses one of the great challenges to the future smart grid.With incentives and subsidies, the penetration level of small-scale renewable energy into power grids is sharply increasing worldwide. Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are used to curtail the extra power during low demand times. These energy storage systems are capable of absorbing and delivering real power to the grid. The increased penetration level of inverter-based distributed generation (DG) reduces the inertia of the grid and thus affects the transient stability of the network. This paper discusses and investigates the impact of BESS on distribution networks’ stability with high penetration levels of inverter based DG. The obtained results show that proper charging and discharging schemes of the BESS can enhance the transient stability of the network. Fast switching between charging and discharging mode would be helpful during transient fault disturbance to keep the system in a balanced condition.
  • Publication
    A Multi-Objective Allocation Approach for Power Quality Monitoring Devices
    (IEEE Xplore Digital Library, 2019) Shaaban, Mostafa; Osman, Ahmed; Aseeri, Fatema Mahmood
    With the inception of smart grids and the increased integration of renewable resources, the continuous monitoring of power systems becomes increasingly important to monitor power quality (PQ) and speed up the localization of faults. The optimal allocation of PQ monitoring devices to achieve 100% observability is one of the most important design problems that face the planning of any power system. However, for smart distribution networks (SDNs), the cost of achieving 100% observability is exorbitant. Therefore, for cost-effective monitoring, the SDN planers can sacrifice a percentage of the system observability. To that end, this paper proposes a multi-objective optimization approach for allocating the PQ monitoring devices with the aim of minimizing two conflicting objectives, namely, the cost and the loss of observability in the system. The proposed approach utilizes branch-and-reduce-based nonlinear programming global solver that minimizes both objectives. The analysis is first carried out for balanced systems and later extended to unbalanced systems. To validate the performance of the proposed approach, it is applied to different standard systems. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
  • Publication
    Towards a Performative Understanding of Deservingness: Merit, Gender and the BBC Pay Dispute
    (Wiley Online Library, 2020) Simpson, Ruth; Kumra, Savita; Lewis, Patricia; Rumens, Nick
    Drawing largely on a high-profile case of unequal pay at the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) as an illustrative example, this conceptual paper considers differences and interrelationships between merit and deservingness, where the latter captures how, through appropriate performances, merit is given recognition and value. We propose a performative understanding of deservingness that highlights its gendered and embodied dimensions. Informed by Judith Butler’s account of gender performativity, we show that, while merit is conventionally conceptualized as a relatively fixed set of attributes (qualifications, skill) ‘attached’ to the individual, deservingness captures how, in gendered terms, value and recognition are both claimed and conferred. As we argue, a gendered, deserving subject does not pre-exist but is performatively constituted through embodied practices and performances of what is seen as worthy in a particular time and place.
  • Publication
    IoT Based Smart City Bus Stops
    (MDPI, 2019) Kamal, Miraal; Atif, Manal; Mujahid, Hafsa; Shanableh, Tamer; Al-Ali, Abdul-Rahman
    The advent of smart sensors, single system-on-chip computing devices, Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing is facilitating the design and development of smart devices and services. These include smart meters, smart street lightings, smart gas stations, smart parking lots, and smart bus stops. Countries in the Gulf region have hot and humid weather around 6–7 months of the year, which might lead to uncomfortable conditions for public commuters. Transportation authorities have made some major enhancements to existing bus stops by installing air-conditioning units, but without any remote monitoring and control features. This paper proposes a smart IoT-based environmentally - friendly enhanced design for existing bus stop services in the United Arab Emirates. The objective of the proposed design was to optimize energy consumption through estimating bus stop occupancy, remotely monitor air conditioning and lights, automatically report utility breakdowns, and measure the air pollution around the area. In order to accomplish this, bus stops will be equipped with a WiFi-Based standalone microcontroller connected to sensors and actuators. The microcontroller transmits the sensor readings to a real-time database hosted in the cloud and incorporates a mobile app that notifies operators or maintenance personnel in the case of abnormal readings or breakdowns. The mobile app encompasses a map interface enabling operators to remotely monitor the conditions of bus stops such as the temperature, humidity, estimated occupancy, and air pollution levels. In addition to presenting the system’s architecture and detailed design, a system prototype is built to test and validate the proposed solution.
  • Publication
    Recent Advances in Femtosecond Laser-Induced Surface Structuring for Oil–Water Separation
    (MDPI, 2019) Alnaser, Ali; Khan, Sharjeel Ahmed; Ganeev, Rashid; Stratakis, Emmanuel
    Femtosecond (FS) laser-induced surface structuring is a robust, maskless, non-contact, and single-step process for producing micro- and nanoscale structures on a material’s surface, which remarkably alters the optical, chemical, wetting, and tribological properties of that material. Wettability control, in particular, is of high significance in various applications, including self-cleaning, anti-fouling, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, and, recently, oil–water separation. Due to growing energy demands and rapid industrialization, oil spill accidents and organic industrial discharges frequently take place. This poses an imminent threat to the environment and has adverse effects on the economy and the ecosystem. Oil–water separation and oil waste management require mechanically robust, durable, low-cost, and highly efficient oil–water manipulation systems. To address this challenge superhydrophobic–superoleophilic and superhydrophilic–underwater superoleophobic membrane filters have shown promising results. However, the recyclability and durability issues of such filters are limiting factors in their industrial application, as well as in their use in oil spill accidents. In this article, we review and discuss the recent progress in the application of FS laser surface structuring in producing durable and robust oil–water separation membrane filters. The wide variety of surface structures produced by FS laser nano- and micromachining are initially presented here, while the excellent wetting characteristics shown by specific femtosecond-induced structures are demonstrated. Subsequently, the working principles of oil–water separation membranes are elaborated, and the most recent advances in the topic are analyzed and discussed.
  • Publication
    Transnational Links in Rhino Poaching and the Black Market Price of Rhino Horns
    (Wiley Online Library, 2019) Lopes, Adrian
    The trends of rhino poaching in South Africa and India – major range states – have been remarkably similar over time. Organized criminal syndicates manage an illegal supply chain of rhino horns from poachers, middlemen, and corrupt authorities, to East Asian black-markets. In this paper, we use rhino poaching data from South Africa and India to examine the plausibility of transnational links and coordination in their supplies of rhino horns. We develop an innovative model of oligopolistic collusion in supply and find empirical evidence to support the theory, while controlling for rhino horn demand features, corruption, governance quality, and conservation policy. Furthermore, we propose an inventory management model of a criminal syndicate that controls the horn supply chain. The method retraces and forecasts black-market prices, and has potential applicability in estimating supply or demand elasticities. This paper is a first to suggest an oligopolistic feature of the poaching industry. It highlights the need to reorient conservation policy to account for possible coordination of rhino horn supplies between range states.
  • Publication
    Gut Bacteria of Water Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator) Are a Potential Source of Antibacterial Compound(s)
    (MDPI, 2019) Akbar, Noor; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Sagathevan, K; Iqbal, Mazhar; Khan, Naveed Ahmed
    For the past few decades, there has been limited progress in the development of novel antibacterials. Previously, we postulated that the gut microbiota of animals residing in polluted environments are a forthcoming supply of antibacterials. Among various species, the water monitor lizard is an interesting species that feeds on organic waste and the carcass of wild animals. Gut microbiota of the water monitor lizard were sequestered, identified and cultivated in RPMI-1640 to produce conditioned medium (CM). Next, the antimicrobial properties of CM were evaluated versus a selection of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus). CM were partially characterized by heat inactivation at 95°C for 10 min and tested against P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes. CM were also tested against immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells lines. The results demonstrated that gut microbiota isolated from water monitor lizard produced molecules with remarkable bactericidal activities. To determine the identity of the active molecules, CM were subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Several molecules were identified belonging to the classes of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyhydroxy alkaloids, polyacetylenes, bisphenols, amides, oxylipin and pyrazine derivatives with known broad-spectrum antimicrobial, anti-tumour, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic attributes. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of these molecules could lead us to develop effective therapeutic antibacterials.
  • Publication
    La socialisation organisationnelle en contexte
    (De Boeck, 2005) Waxin, Marie-France
    Les recherches de référence sur la socialisation organisationnelle ont été présentées dans le chapitre VII. Les ouvertures offertes par une approche cognitive et identitaire ainsi que par la perspective interactionniste ont été développées dans le chapitre VIII. Ce chapitre s'achève par une analyse critique des pratiques de socialisation dans les organisations au vu des connaissances établies jusqu'à présent. Les limites et les pistes de recherche ont été précisées tout au long de ces chapitres. Il apparaît que l'étendue et la multiplicité des processus de socialisation rendent l'élaboration d'une théorie générale particulièrement difficile. Une manière de contourner cette difficulté est d'étudier la socialisation dans des contextes particuliers et d'en reconnaître les spécificités. Le chapitre IX fait ainsi état des travaux sur la socialisation dans le cadre du syndicat et de l'expatriation. Nous nous sommes par ailleurs intéressés à la socialisation d'un type spécifique de salariés, le personnel en contact avec la clientèle. Pour finir, une ouverture nouvelle est proposée par l'analyse d'une catégorie « d'employés partiels » de l'organisation avec le concept de socialisation organisationnelle du client.
  • Publication
    La compensation totale à l’international
    (Éditions de Liaisons, 2008) Waxin, Marie-France
    La structure du chapitre. Ce chapitre se divise en trois parties bien distinctes, traitant de trois aspects majeurs de la compensation à l’international. Dans la première, nous traiterons d’abord des éléments de compensation financiers et non financiers des employés internationaux (comme les expatriés). Dans la seconde partie, nous adoptons une approche comparative et nous examinerons les variations nationales dans les systèmes de compensation. Enfin dans la troisième partie, nous adoptons une vision globale : après avoir présenté les facteurs qui influent sur les stratégies de compensation internationale des multinationales, nous examinons leurs réponses et leurs stratégies.