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Publication

Phase transitions of nanoemulsions using ultrasound: Experimental observations

Singh, Ram
Husseini, Ghaleb
Pitt, William G.
Date
2012
Advisor
Type
Peer-Reviewed
Article
Published version
Degree
Description
Abstract
The ultrasound-induced transformation of perfluorocarbon liquids to gases is of interest in the area of drug and gene delivery. In this study, three independent parameters (temperature, size, and perfluorocarbon species) were selected to investigate the effects of 476-kHz and 20-kHz ultrasound on nanoemulsion phase transition. Two levels of each factor (low and high) were considered at each frequency. The acoustic intensities at gas bubble formation and at the onset of inertial cavitation were recorded and subsequently correlated with the acoustic parameters. Experimental data showed that low frequencies are more effective in forming and collapsing a bubble. Additionally, as the size of the emulsion droplet increased, the intensity required for bubble formation decreased. As expected, perfluorohexane emulsions require greater intensity to form cavitating bubbles than perfluoropentane emulsions.