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Incorporating nanoparticles in 3D printed scaffolds for bone cancer therapy

AlSawaftah, Nour Majdi
Pitt, William G.
Husseini, Ghaleb
Published version
The low occurrence rate of bone cancer contributes to delayed diagnosis and treatment; in addition, the surgical resection of bone tumors can cause significant bone defects, further hindering the effective treatment of the disease. 3D printing can help overcome some of these limitations by enabling the design and fabrication of innovative scaffolds loaded with chemotherapeutics and growth factors, stimulating bone regeneration, and delivering targeted cancer treatment. Moreover, advancements in nanotechnology have opened up new possibilities for bone tissue engineering. Nanoparticles (NPs) possess size-dependent physicochemical properties. NPs can also be designed to respond to specific stimuli enhancing localized drug delivery. These unique properties can be harnessed by embedding NPs in 3D-printed scaffolds to develop multifunctional bone scaffolds with enhanced mechanical properties and drug delivery capabilities. This review evaluates the impact of incorporating NPs in 3D-printed scaffolds on bone cancer therapy and bone regeneration. First, various 3D printing techniques employed in the biomedical field are presented and explained. The article then highlights notable achievements by researchers in this area. Finally, the review discusses the current obstacles facing this technology and how they can be addressed to enable translation into clinics.