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LungVision: X-ray Imagery Classification for On-Edge Diagnosis Applications

Aldamani, Raghad
Abuhani, Diaa Addeen
Shanableh, Tamer
Published version
This study presents a comprehensive analysis of utilizing TensorFlow Lite on mobile phones for the on-edge medical diagnosis of lung diseases. This paper focuses on the technical deployment of various deep learning architectures to classify nine respiratory system diseases using X-ray imagery. We propose a simple deep learning architecture that experiments with six different convolutional neural networks. Various quantization techniques are employed to convert the classification models into TensorFlow Lite, including post-classification quantization with floating point 16 bit representation, integer quantization with representative data, and quantization-aware training. This results in a total of 18 models suitable for on-edge deployment for the classification of lung diseases. We then examine the generated models in terms of model size reduction, accuracy, and inference time. Our findings indicate that the quantization-aware training approach demonstrates superior optimization results, achieving an average model size reduction of 75.59%. Among many CNNs, MobileNetV2 exhibited the highest performance-to-size ratio, with an average accuracy loss of 4.1% across all models using the quantization-aware training approach. In terms of inference time, TensorFlow Lite with integer quantization emerged as the most efficient technique, with an average improvement of 1.4 s over other conversion approaches. Our best model, which used EfficientNetB2, achieved an F1-Score of approximately 98.58%, surpassing state-of-the-art performance on the X-ray lung diseases dataset in terms of accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. The model experienced an F1 loss of around 1% using quantization-aware optimization. The study culminated in the development of a consumer-ready app, with TensorFlow Lite models tailored to mobile devices.